What are the two types of colds? What are the similarities and differences between them?
Colds are divided into common cold and influenza ("flu" for short).
- Common cold
Symptoms: mainly nasopharyngeal symptoms such as the runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat;
Viruses: There are hundreds of viruses that cause the common cold, among which rhinovirus is the most common (30%-50%), followed by a coronavirus (10%-15%), respiratory syncytial virus (5%), and parainfluenza virus (5%), adenovirus (＜5%) and enterovirus (＜5%), etc.
Symptoms: The body aches and high fever are more serious.
Viruses: There are two main types of viruses that cause influenza-type A (also called type A) and type B (also called type B). According to the different types of virus surface proteins, influenza A and B viruses are further classified into different subtypes, such as H1N1, H3N2, H7N9, etc.
Viruses that cause influenza are generally more virulent, and the complications are usually more serious: serious complications such as viral myocarditis and pneumonia.
To put it simply: Although the diagnosis and symptoms of the two types of colds are not the same, the nursing methods are similar, drink more water, sleep more, and rest more.
Symptomatically use antipyretics to reduce fever, physiological seawater salt nasal spray to clean the nose, and light saltwater gargle to relieve a sore throat.
The babies have a cold, is it necessary to take medicine right away?
Please don’t use medicine when you don’t need it, please don’t use more medicine when you can take less medicine, and please don’t inject when you can take it orally.
In foreign countries, if a sick baby is taken to see a cold, the pediatrician will probably not prescribe any cold medicine.
The doctor will comfort the parents sympathetically: "It's the season of colds, and I blame it for being too cold!" In English, "cold" and "cold" are the same word, so it sounds reasonable.
The cold medicines on the market (such as paracetamol, phenanthramine, memin and pseudoephedrine, guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine, etc.) are basically medicines that treat the symptoms but not the root cause, that is, they can only control the symptoms of colds. Symptoms such as fever, cough, and runny nose will not shorten the course of a cold. Therefore, the use of medicine to control the symptoms does not make the cold heal quickly. It is better to take care of it and wait patiently for the baby’s own resistance to overcome the disease.
There have been reports of multiple deaths of children in the United States due to overdose of cold medicines. Therefore, in 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration banned children under two from taking cold medicines.
At the same time, the pharmaceutical company is required to modify the cold medicine instructions for children of other age groups, and the medicine instructions clearly stipulate that children under 4 years old are not recommended to use cold medicine.
At present, the instructions for children’s cold medicines sold in American pharmacies all indicate the restricted age groups: children under two years old are prohibited, under 4 years old are not recommended, children between 4 and 6 years old can be used under the guidance of a doctor, only children over 6 years old can use it independently according to their symptoms.
The US Food and Drug Administration banned the sale of cold medicines for children under 4 years old mainly because of the following considerations:
- Without clinical verification, the safety of medication cannot be guaranteed: Due to ethical and other constraints, pharmaceutical companies cannot conduct clinical trials of drugs on children, especially infants, and pharmaceutical companies often calculate according to adult doses, combining children’s weight and age. Children’s doses are given, but these figures are extrapolated results and not clinical trial results.
And we all know that children are not reduced-scale adults. Their liver and kidneys and other important organs are not yet mature, and their ability to metabolize and excrete drugs is weak. Therefore, many drugs are found to be highly risky during use, and the safety of the medication cannot be guaranteed.
- Children’s cold medicines are mostly compound preparations, and it is easy for children to take the same medicine repeatedly: a compound means that a medicine contains multiple effective ingredients. Observing the cold medicine we have given to our children, we can find that a cold medicine can relieve many cold symptoms.
For example, nasal congestion, runny nose, cough, etc. If the child only has the symptoms of a runny nose, then the ingredients contained in this medicine to relieve nasal congestion and cough are additional medicines for the child. Not only is it useless, it will bring toxic side effects to the child's small body.
It is worth noting that although the trade names of many medicines are different, their active ingredients are almost the same (for example, Tylenol and Huifening, although two cold medicines with different trade names, they contain similar active ingredients) Often parents do not know the risks involved and give their children two medicines at the same time, causing overdose of the same medicine.
- Cold medicine only helps relieve symptoms, but does not shorten the course of the disease: why do many people keen to take cold medicine and think that cold medicine is useful?
This is because the ingredients contained in cold medicine can indeed relieve symptoms such as cough and runny nose caused by colds, and make children feel more comfortable, but it is "a temporary cure but not a permanent cure". The cause of the cold cannot be eradicated. The cure of the cold can only rely on improve your own immunity to defeat the virus in your body, and cold medicine has no effect on this.
In other words, whether you take medicine or not, the common cold caused by the virus takes 5 to 7 days to heal.
One point that needs to be pointed out here is: antipyretics are not the cold medicines mentioned here, so the acetaminophen or ibuprofen that is used to reduce fever on the market can be used safely in accordance with the recommended dosage of the instructions.
If no drugs were used, how should we take scientific care?
It usually takes one to two weeks for the cold symptoms to disappear. If the baby only has a runny nose and is in a good state of mind, he does not need to take medicine, adjust the humidity in the room above 50%, drink more water, rest more, sleep more, and exercise less.
Nasal mucus can be relieved by cleaning the nasal cavity with physiological sea salt nasal spray, don't rub it hard. Erythromycin topical antibiotic ointment can be applied to the area of the nose where the skin is broken to prevent and treat bacterial infections.
It is normal if the baby cannot spit out sputum, and it is normal for the sputum swallowed into the stomach.
The place where phlegm is produced is the respiratory tract, and the place where it is swallowed is the digestive tract, not the same place, and it will not cause a longer cough. Drinking small amounts of water multiple times can promote sputum excretion.
Can infusions and anti-inflammatory drugs make colds heal faster?
We don't recommend taking medicine and injections frequently when you have a cold. If you take good care of it, you can heal itself without medicine.
Infusions should not be abused for common cold and fever. Infusions only temporarily relieve the symptoms of fever, and cannot completely remove the cold virus from the body.
In addition, due to the large number of children in the infusion room, cross-infection is prone to occur.
Therefore, parents are reminded not to be superstitious about infusions. Infusions will not only increase the pain of injections, but also risk serious allergic reactions and infusion reactions.
And usually people mistakenly think that antibiotics are anti-inflammatory drugs. In fact, antibiotics are antibacterial drugs, which only have an effect on inflammation caused by bacterial infections, but are ineffective against inflammation caused by viruses.
Since the baby's heart, liver, kidneys and other organs are delicate and the condition changes quickly, parents of a baby with a cold should not take it lightly. They should carefully observe the changes in the condition. Once the symptoms get worse or other complications occur, they must see a doctor in time for a clear diagnosis.
Only when a cold is combined with or secondary to a bacterial infection, you need to take so-called "anti-inflammatory drugs", such as amoxicillin and cephalosporins.
What diseases can be caused by a worsening cold? What are the symptoms?
If the fever and cough symptoms are not relieved or worsened after three days of catching a cold, you may develop pneumonia secondary to lung infection.
Typical symptoms of pneumonia may include ——
Persistent high fever (usually above 39 degrees), accompanied by sweating and cold war; persistent coughing, coughing deepens, aggravation, or clusters of severe coughs; breathing is significantly faster, making it difficult to breathe; there is "wheezing" that can cause the face redness or bruising around the nose and mouth when being "suffocated".
If the above symptoms occur, you should seek medical attention immediately. The doctor will evaluate the child's condition to decide whether to use antibiotics and other more aggressive treatments.
Sometimes the baby coughs badly, and the biggest worry for parents is that they are afraid of turning into pneumonia. This is a misunderstanding of coughing.
We often say that cough is not a disease, but a symptom. Behind this symptom, there are a series of causes of coughing, such as a cold, asthma, and pneumonia.
Pneumonia is just one of the causes of coughing.
The cough caused by a cold is a defense method for the body against the invasion of cold viruses, helping to clear the secretions of the respiratory tract, but it is easy to prevent the progression to more serious diseases such as pneumonia. Therefore, there is such a sentence abroad to describe the positive meaning of coughing. That is, "cough is the watchdog of the lungs."
The child coughs and catches a cold repeatedly,
What aspects should parents pay attention to?
To deal with the baby's repeated colds, one point of prevention is better than one point of treatment.
The cold is a contagious disease. It can be spread through droplets from coughing or sneezing, or through direct contact with cold patients or objects they have touched. Therefore, during cold seasons, parents should take their babies to less crowded public places to avoid cross infection.
In addition, parents should wash their hands frequently. Babies under one year old like to eat hands, often because they are in the oral phase. They understand the world and satisfy themselves through eating hands. There is no need to deliberately correct it, but their hands should be washed cleanly to avoid infection of the cold virus through eating hands.
Also, parents should pay attention to their own personal hygiene. When returning home from getting off work outside, they must first change their clothes, rinse their mouth, clean their nasal cavity, wash their face and hands before holding the baby.
Is it because the baby’s immune system is too weak for a cold? How to reduce the number of illnesses?
Don't tag your child with poor immunity easily, and don't abuse all kinds of so-called immunity enhancing drugs.
The child's immunity is built up in the process of constantly fighting the disease.
The data provided in the "Expert Consensus on Standardized Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Colds in Children in China" (2013) shows that children have an average of 5 to 7 colds per year, so it is common for children under 7 to have 5-7 colds per year.
Especially in winter, children spend less time outdoors, and the indoor virus concentration is high. A cold more than 7 times a year is medically defined as repeated respiratory infections.
For children who are prone to repeated respiratory infections, usually try to avoid contact with people who are sick. If someone at home has a cold, they should actively isolate themselves from the baby, or wear a mask and wash their hands before touching the baby.
The baby's room should be a smoke-free environment, and family members should quit smoking as much as possible, and stay away from smoking in the baby's room if they can't.
At the same time, it is recommended that babies with repeated colds receive pneumonia vaccine and flu vaccine to reduce the number of illnesses.
It’s also very common to have a bad appetite after catching a cold. Parents should pay attention to changing the children’s diet, including more easily absorbed, non-greasy foods, avoiding non-digestible diets, and not eating too much at once, don’t force feeding when your child doesn’t want to eat. You can adjust their appetite by eating smaller meals and more meals to ensure your baby gets balanced nutrition.
It is not recommended for babies to use so-called immune enhancers such as gamma globulin, interferon, splenic aminopeptide, and pidotimod to improve immunity. Not only does it have no long-term clear curative effect, but it may also cause harm from unknown drug sources.
Baby coughs badly after catching a cold
How to take care and medication?
When the baby lies down and sleeps, the nasal mucus flowing to the back of the throat can irritate and cause aggravation of cough. Therefore, try to raise the mattress in the direction of the head by 30 degrees.
Studies have shown that a spoonful of honey before going to bed can relieve cough symptoms and help sleep, but honey is forbidden for babies under 1 year old.
Improve air quality, because coughing has a lot to do with the air you breathe. If the air is too dirty, the haze is too heavy, or it is too dry, the baby will cough badly.
Therefore, when nursing your baby at home, if the weather is good, you should open more doors and windows to keep the air fresh and circulating; if the weather is bad, use an air purifier to improve the indoor air quality; if the air is dry , Use a humidifier to increase the indoor humidity, use a humidifier to keep the indoor humidity at about 50%-65%, too much humidity is not good, it is easy to breed mold in the room.
You can also choose to let your baby breathe in water vapor to relieve coughing.
Put hot water in the bathroom for a while before going to bed, wait for the steam to fill the bathroom, hold your baby in as much as possible, and let the respiratory tract get sufficient moisture by inhaling more water vapor. This method also helps relieve nasal congestion and cough.
You can also use the steam engine used by moms to steam your face to moisturize your baby’s respiratory tract, but you can’t use tap water or mineral water in the steam engine. Use distilled water.
If it is a cough caused by thick sputum that is not easy to cough up, you can use a single-component phlegm-reducing medicine, such as ambroxol syrup, or acetylcysteine granules.
When coughing severely affects sleep, nebulization treatment can be carried out under the guidance of a doctor. The nebulized medicine can be simply normal saline. Use it to keep the respiratory tract moist and reduce coughing caused by irritation.
Or add bronchodilator salbutamol solution or ipratropium bromide solution to the nebulizer according to the symptoms, or use anti-inflammatory hormones such as budesonide for inhalation if necessary.
It needs to be emphasized that these drugs for nebulization therapy are all prescription drugs, and need a doctor to write a prescription based on the baby's condition.
- Special reminder:If the baby coughs for too long after catching a cold, the cough deepens, worsens, or develops into a series of violent coughs, the breathing is obviously increased, so that breathing is difficult, and there is "wheezing" phenomenon, as a result, the face becomes flushed or the area around his mouth and nose is blue, take him to the hospital to see a doctor in time.
According to his condition, the doctor will diagnose whether the baby has secondary complications of bacterial infection and whether he needs antibiotics. When antibiotics must be used, do not blindly refuse.
What should I do if my baby has a fever?
How to choose and use antipyretics?
Fever is one of the body's self-protection mechanisms, and it is a symptom that the body manifests in the process of mobilizing the immune system to fight diseases.
The body temperature is usually not directly proportional to the severity of the disease. Individuals have different physiques and their sensitivity to temperature regulation will vary. Some people can burn very high with a mild cold, and some people do not necessarily have a high body temperature even if they have a serious infection.
In most cases, baby's fever is caused by colds, ear infections, or bronchial, pharynx, tonsils, lung infections, etc. The “infection” mentioned here may be a viral infection, or it may be an infection of other pathogens such as bacteria.
Generally, fever is defined as axillary temperature exceeding 37.2°C, ear temperature exceeding 37.8°C, oral temperature exceeding 37.5°C, and anal temperature exceeding 38°C.
Axillary temperature of 37.3℃～38℃ is low fever, 38℃～39℃ is moderate fever, 39℃～40℃ is high fever, and above 40℃ is super high fever.
When your baby has a fever, remember to give your baby more water. The process of water excretion can speed up the heat dissipation in your baby.
But be sure to feed it in small amounts multiple times. Don't feed too much at once, otherwise it will increase the burden on the kidneys.
For very small babies, parents can use a medicinal dropper to feed water like medicine. Insert the dropper into the baby’s mouth, squeeze water into it, and feed it in small amounts and several times. Although the parents work harder, they can guarantee feed the water to the baby in time.
Encourage older babies to drink more water. You can drink water while playing games with them, you can play with him a game where anyone who drinks more water wins.
Babies are very easy to accept suggestions in fun games. We should be wise parents and think of some ways to help the baby drink the water less resistance and lower the body temperature.
For babies whose armpit temperature exceeds 38.5°C, consider using antipyretics.
The main purpose of using anti-fever medicine is to relieve the discomfort caused by fever to the baby, so that the baby can eat and sleep normally, replenish enough energy and maintain physical strength to fight the disease.
The World Health Organization recommends acetaminophen and ibuprofen as the most effective anti-fever medicines that babies use when they have a fever. The following describes how to use these two medicines to reduce the fever.
Applicable people: children over 3 months
Dosage: 10-15 mg per kilogram of body weight each time
Dosing time: once every 4 hours, up to 5 times a day
Common drug name: Tylenol
Note: Use with caution in children with broad bean disease, not as the first choice for anti-fever medicine.
Applicable people: children over 6 months
Dosage: 5-10 mg per kilogram of body weight each time
Dosing time: once every 6 hours, up to 4 times a day
Common drug name: Merrill Lynch
Note: It is not suitable for children with dehydration and poor kidney function. Avoid using it for babies with asthma.
For example, if the baby weighs 10 kg, the maximum dose that can be given each time is 10*15=150 mg. If the concentration of acetaminophen in your hand is 100 mg drops per ml, then 150 mg The amount of medicine converted into the volume of the medicine is 1.5 ml. That is to say, the maximum amount of medicine for a 10 kg baby can be 1.5 ml each time.
At the same time, we should pay attention to choosing a single-component acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce fever.
When taking a single-component acetaminophen, do not take other compound cold medicines at the same time, otherwise the repeated use of acetaminophen may cause liver damage, and you must carefully check the ingredients of the medicine before taking the medicine to avoid repeated medicines containing the same active ingredient Taking.
- Babies under 3 months of age should go to the hospital for any signs of illness, especially when the baby has a fever over 38°C (underarm temperature) or cough;
- When the baby has a bad face, faints, or vomits or diarrhea frequently occurs after a cold;
- When the baby's condition does not improve after nursing at home, but severe symptoms such as severe coughing, rapid breathing, and difficulty breathing;
- Babies between three months and three years old have anal temperature of 38°C or above, have a fever for more than three days, or the baby is clingy and does not drink water;
- For babies of any age, the mouth temperature, rectal temperature or ear temperature is 40℃ or above, or the underarm temperature reaches 39.4℃ or above;
- When a baby of any age has a febrile seizure for the first time;
- When a baby of any age has a fever for more than 5 days, even if the fever lasts only a few hours a day, he must be taken to the hospital to see a doctor.